/PROP/TYPE9 (SH_ORTH)
Block Format Keyword This property set is used to define the orthotropic shell property.
Format
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10) 

/PROP/TYPE9/prop_ID/unit_ID or /PROP/SH_ORTH/prop_ID/unit_ID  
prop_title  
I_{shell}  I_{smstr}  I_{sh3n}  I_{dril}  P_thick_{fail}  
h_{m}  h_{f}  h_{r}  d_{m}  d_{n}  
N  I_{strain}  Thick  A_{shear}  I_{thick}  I_{plas}  
V_{X}  V_{Y}  V_{Z}  $\varphi $ 
Definitions
Field  Contents  SI Unit Example 

prop_ID  Property
identifier. (Integer, maximum 10 digits) 

unit_ID  Unit Identifier. (Integer, maximum 10 digits) 

prop_title  Property
title. (Character, maximum 100 characters) 

I_{shell}  Shell element formulation
flag. 1
(Integer) 

I_{smstr}  Shell small strain
formulation flag. 2
(Integer) 

I_{sh3n}  3 node shell element
formulation flag.
(Integer) 

I_{dril}  Drilling degree of freedom
stiffness flag. 7
(Integer) 

P_thick_{fail}  Percentage of through thickness integration points that must fail
before the element is deleted. 9
10 $0.0\le P\_thic{k}_{fail}\le 1.0$ (Real) 

h_{m}  Shell membrane hourglass
coefficient. 3 Default = 0.01 Default = 0.1 for hourglass type 3 (I_{shell} =3) (Real) 

h_{f}  Shell outofplane
hourglass. 3 Default = 0.01 Default = 0.1 for hourglass type 3 (I_{shell} =3) (Real) 

h_{r}  Shell rotation hourglass
coefficient. 3 Default = 0.01 Default = 0.1 for hourglass type 3 (I_{shell} =3) (Real) 

d_{m}  Shell Membrane Damping It is only active for Material Laws 19, 25, 32 and 36. Default =1.5% for I_{shell} =24 (QEPH)+LAW19, 32 and 36. Default =5.0% for I_{shell} =24 (QEPH)+LAW25 Default =0.0% for I_{shell} =12 (QBAT) Default =5.0% for I_{shell} =1,2,3,4 (Q4)+LAW25 Default =25.0% for I_{shell} =1,2,3,4 (Q4)+LAW19 Default =0.0% for I_{shell} =1,2,3,4 (Q4)+LAW32 and 36 (Real) 

d_{n}  Shell numerical damping.
4 It only used for I_{shell} =12 and 24. Default =1.5% for I_{shell} =24 (QEPH) Default =0.1% for I_{shell} =12 (QBAT) Default =0.01% for I_{sh3n} =30 (DKT18) (Real) 

N  Number of integration
points through the thickness 1 < N <
10. Default set to 1 (Integer) 

I_{strain}  Compute strains for
postprocessing flag.
(Integer) 

Thick  Shell
thickness. (Real) 
$\left[\text{m}\right]$ 
A_{shear}  Shear factor. Default is Reissner value: 5/6 (Real) 

I_{thick}  Shell resultant stresses
calculation flag.
(Integer) 

I_{plas}  Shell plane stress
plasticity flag. 6 It is available for Material Laws 2, 22, 32,
36 and 43.
(Integer) 

V_{X}  X component. 8 Default = 1.0 (Real) 

V_{Y}  Y component. 8 Default = 0.0 (Real) 

V_{Z}  Z component. 8 Default = 0.0 (Real) 

$\varphi $  Angle. 8 Default = 0.0 (Real) 
$\left[\mathrm{deg}\right]$ 
Example
#RADIOSS STARTER
#12345678910
# 1. LOCAL_UNIT_SYSTEM:
#12345678910
/UNIT/2
unit for prop
# MUNIT LUNIT TUNIT
kg mm ms
#12345678910
# 2. GEOMETRICAL SETS:
#12345678910
/PROP/SH_ORTH/2/2
SH_ORTH example
# Ishell Ismstr Ish3n Idrill
12 0 0 1
# hm hf hr dm dn
0 0 0 .1 .1
# N Istrain Thick Ashear Ithick Iplas
3 0 1.8 0 1 1
# Vx Vy Vz Phi
1 0 1 45
#12345678910
#enddata
#12345678910
Comments
 I_{shell}. I_{sh3n} – 4node and 3node shell
formulation flag
 I_{shell} =1,2,3,4 (Q4): original 4 node Radioss shell with hourglass perturbation stabilization.
 I_{shell} =24 (QEPH): formulation with hourglass physical stabilization for general use.
 I_{shell} =12 (QBAT): modified BATOZ Q4γ24 shell with four Gauss integration points and reduced integration for inplane shear. No hourglass control is needed for this shell.
 I_{sh3n} =30 (DKT18): BATOZ DKT18 thin shell with three Hammer integration points.
 Flag I_{shell} =2 is incompatible with one integration point for shell element.
 I_{sh3n}  Small strain
formulation
 Small strain formulation is activated from time t= 0, if I_{smstr} = 1, 3 or 11. It may be used for a faster preliminary analysis, but the accuracy of results is not ensured. Any shell for which $\Delta \text{t<}\Delta {\text{t}}_{\text{min}}$ can be switched to a small strain formulation by Radioss Engine option /DT/SHELL/CST, except if I_{smstr} = 4 or 11.
 If I_{smstr} =1, 3 or 11, the strains and stresses which are given in material laws are engineering strains and stresses; otherwise they are true strains and stresses.
 I_{smstr} =11 has been developed to improve the robustness for Airbag models; actually it is only compatible with Law 19 and with all quadrilateral shells and standard C0 tria. For Q4 shell using reference state coordinates, when I_{smstr} = 1, it will be set automatically to I_{smstr} = 11.
 h_{m}, h_{f}, and h_{r}  Hourglass coefficients
 h_{m}, h_{f}, and h_{r} are only used for Q4 shells (I_{shell}=1,2,3,4). They must have a value between 0 and 0.05.
 For I_{shell}=3, default values of h_{m} and h_{r} are 0.1 with larger values possible.
 d_{n}  Shell
numerical damping coefficient
 d_{n} is only used for I_{shell} =12 and 24 and
I_{sh3n}=30:
 for I_{shell} = 24, d_{n} is used for hourglass stress calculation
 for I_{shell} = =12 (QBAT) d_{n} is used for all stress terms, except transvers shear
 for I_{sh3n}=30 (DKT18) d_{n} is only used for membrane
 d_{n} is only used for I_{shell} =12 and 24 and
I_{sh3n}=30:
 I_{thick}  Shell resultant
stresses calculation flag
 Flag I_{thick} is automatically set to 1 for /MAT/LAW32 (HILL).
 If I_{thick}=1, the small strain option is automatically deactivated in the corresponding type of element.
 I_{plas}  Shell plane stress
plasticity flag
 It is recommended to use I_{plas} = 1, if I_{thick} = 1.
 If I_{plas} =1, the small strain option is automatically deactivated in the corresponding type of element.
 I_{dril}  Drilling degree of
freedom stiffness flag
 Drilling DOF stiffness is recommended for implicit solutions especially for Riks method and bending dominated problems.
 I_{dril} is available for QEPH, QBAT (I_{shell} = 12 and 24), and standard triangle (C0) shell elements (I_{sh3n} = 1 and 2).
 Orthotropy in local
coordinate system:
 Orthotropic direction defined with global vector $V$ (components defined in Line 6) and angle $\varphi $ (angle in degree).
 Projection of vector $V$ on shell element plane becomes the vector ${V}^{\prime}$ . Next, the element's orthotropic direction (direction 1) vector ${V}^{\prime}$ is turned $\varphi $ degrees; where, positive rotation is based on the shell normal $n$ .
 In case of reference metrics, the orientation for directions of anisotropy must be defined with the reference geometry, not the initial one.
 P_thick_{fail} parameter is not compatible with failure defined within the material law itself, such as plastic failure strain in LAW36.
 Element deletion rules
used with /FAIL models:
 Underintegrated elements (Belytchko, QEPH, DKT18):
 If more than one failure model is applied to the shell material,
or
P_thick_{fail}=0
(blank), the value of
P_thick_{fail}
is calculated individually from each failure model settings. Example:
 Ifail_sh = 1
 One integration point failure sufficient to delete element, then P_thick_{fail}= 1.0 e6
 Ifail_sh = 2
 All integration points failure is necessary to delete the element, thenP_thick_{fail}= 1.0
 If only one failure model is applied to the material, the P_thick_{fail} value from the property is taken by default and overwrites local Ifail_sh settings from the failure model.
 If more than one failure model is applied to the shell material,
or
P_thick_{fail}=0
(blank), the value of
P_thick_{fail}
is calculated individually from each failure model settings.
 Fully integrated shells (Batoz, DKT_S3):
 The rule described for underintegrated shells applies to each Gauss point separately. P_thick_{fail} ratio is checked for all integration points in thickness for each inplane Gauss point. The element is deleted only when all Gauss points reach P_thick_{fail} ratio criteria.
 Underintegrated elements (Belytchko, QEPH, DKT18):