Force: Field
Model ElementForce_Field defines a force and torque acting between two Reference_Markers, I and J.
Description
The force and torque can only be a function of time and the relative displacement of the I and J Reference_Markers. The six components (three forces and three moments) are defined in the coordinate system of the J Reference_Marker. Both linear and nonlinear relationships are supported. A linear Force_Field is defined directly in the XML input file. A nonlinear Force_Field is defined in a userdefined subroutine called FIESUB.
Format
<Force_Field
id = "integer"
[ label = "string" ]
i_marker_id = "integer"
j_marker_id = "integer"
{
usrsub_dll_name = valid_path_name
usrsub_param_string = "USER( [[par_1 [, ...][,par_n]] )"
usrsub_fnc_name = "custom_fnc_name" >

script_name = valid_path_name
interpreter = "PYTHON"  "MATLAB"
usrsub_param_string = "USER( [[par_1 [, ...][,par_n]] )"
usrsub_fnc_name = "custom_fnc_name" >
[[
length_x="real" length_y="real" length_z="real"
length_tx="real" length_ty="real" length_tz="real"
]]
[[ preload_x="real" preload_y="real" preload_z="real"
preload_tx="real" preload_ty="real" preload_tz="real"
]]
[[
K11="real" K12="real" K13="real" K14="real" K15="real" K16="real"
K21="real" K22="real" K23="real" K24="real" K25="real" K26="real"
K31="real" K32="real" K33="real" K34="real" K35="real" K36="real"
K41="real" K42="real" K43="real" K44="real" K45="real" K46="real"
K51="real" K52="real" K53="real" K54="real" K55="real" K56="real"
K61="real" K62="real" K63="real" K64="real" K65="real" K66="real"
]]
[[
CRATIO = "real" >

C11="real" C12="real" C13="real" C14="real" C15="real" C16="real"
C21="real" C22="real" C23="real" C24="real" C25="real" C26="real"
C31="real" C32="real" C33="real" C34="real" C35="real" C36="real"
C41="real" C42="real" C43="real" C44="real" C45="real" C46="real"
C51="real" C52="real" C53="real" C54="real" C55="real" C56="real"
C61="real" C62="real" C63="real" C64="real" C65="real" C66="real" >
]]
}
</Force_Field>
Attributes
 id
 Element identification number (integer>0). This number is unique among all Force_Field elements and uniquely identifies the element.
 label
 The name of the Force_Field element.
 i_marker_id
 Specifies the Reference_Marker at which the force is applied. This is designated as the point of application of the force.
 j_marker_id
 Specifies the Reference_Marker at which the reaction force and moment are applied. This is designated as the point of reaction of the force.
 usrsub_param_string
 The list of parameters that are passed from the data file to the user written subroutine, FIESUB. This attribute is common to all types of user subroutines and scripts.
 usrsub_dll_name
 Specifies the path and name of the DLL or shared library containing user subroutine. MotionSolve uses this information to load the user subroutine in the DLL at run time.
 usrsub_fnc_name
 Specifies an alternative name for the user subroutine FIESUB.
 script_name
 Specifies the path and name of the user written script that contains the routine specified by usrsub_fnc_name.
 interpreter
 Specifies the interpreted language that the user script is written in. Valid choices are MATLAB or PYTHON.
 length_x, length_y, length_z, length_tx, length_ty, length_tz
 These define the free length of the Force_Field element. In other words, the displacement from J to I, as measured by the J coordinate system when no external forces are acting on the element. Rotations are measured in terms of AX(I,J), AY(I,J), and AZ(I,J). They are assumed to be small angles (< 10 degrees). The data is optional. Their default values are 0.
 preload_x, preload_y, preload_z, preload_tx, preload_ty, preload_tz
 These define the preloads in the Force_Field element. In other words, the forces at I when there is no deformation. The force and torque components are measured in the J coordinate system. The data is optional. Their default values are 0.
 K11 K12 K13 K14 K15
 K16 K21 K22 K23 K24
 K25 K26 K31 K32 K33
 K34 K35 K36 K41 K42
 K43 K44 K45 K46 K51
 K52 K53 K54 K55 K61
 K62 K63 K64 K65 K66
 These define a 6x6 stiffness matrix that is used to calculate the spring force when a linear Force_Field is to be defined. The matrix need not be symmetric. It must, however, be positive semidefinite. In other words, xTKx ≥ 0 for any x. These entries are optional. They default to zero. It is convenient to define only those that are nonzero.
 cratio
 Defines a damping scale factor. If this is specified, the damping matrix is calculated as C = cratio * K. A value of cratio = 0.01 is normally used.
 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15
 C16 C21 C22 C23 C24
 C25 C26 C31 C32 C33
 C34 C35 C36 C41 C42
 C43 C44 C45 C46 C51
 C52 C53 C54 C55 C56
 C61 C62 C63 C64 C65
 C66
 These define a 6x6 damping matrix that is used to calculate the damping force for a linear Force_Field. The matrix need not be symmetric. However, it must be positive semidefinite. In other words, yTCy ≥ 0 for any y. These entries are optional. They default to zero. It is convenient to define only those entries that are nonzero.
Example
The first example demonstrates modeling of viscoelastic behavior in a bushing with a Force_Field. In nonlinear finite elements, it is common to model such effects using material laws and Maxwell elements. In MotionSolve, you can simply encapsulate this behavior in a FIESUB.
The key aspect to viscoelastic behavior is that the force generated in the bushing is dependent on the strainrate in the bushing. In MotionSolve, this is modeled as deflectionvelocity (or deformation velocity) dependence. "Synthesized" test data for a viscoelastic bushing is shown in the figure below.
For this example, assume that a bushing was tested and that four force versus deflection curves (1114) are available for different strain rates. These curves specify the dependency of the bushing force on the deflection for constant deflectionvelocity along one of the translational directions. Similar curves are available for each of the other deflection components. Data for each component is provided in a separate matrix. The matrix IDs are passed to the FIESUB user defined subroutine through the parameter list.
The bushing connects two Reference_Markers: "1801" on Body 18, and "1901" on Body 19. We want to model the nonlinear bushing damping force in MotionSolve.
The Force_Field modeling element for this scenario is:
<Force_Field
id = "18"
i_marker_id = "1801"
j_marker_id = "1901"
usrsub_dll_name = "C:\gates\Desktop\test\bush.dll"
usrsub_param_string = "USER(11,12,13,14,15,16)" >
</Force_Field>
The usersubroutine, FIESUB, in the DLL "C:\gates\Desktop\test\bush.dll" is automatically loaded by MotionSolve. It is then invoked as needed to calculate the instantaneous force and/or the instantaneous stiffness and damping matrices.
 The ID of the Force_Field.
 The deflection in the bushing (6 element array).
 The deflectionvelocity (6 element array).
 The parameters defined in usrsub_param_string and the number of parameters.
 The simulation time.
 A logical flag indicates whether instantaneous stiffness and damping matrices are to be calculated or not.
 A second logical flag indicating whether this is the first call to FIESUB for the bushing or not. It is used for initialization purposes.
 The bushing force (6 element array).
 The instantaneous stiffness matrix (6x6 array).
 The instantaneous damping matrix.
The calling sequence for the FIESUB is shown below. Inputs are in blue and outputs are in red.
CALL FIESUB (ID, TIME, PAR, NPAR, DISP, VELO, DFLAG, IFLAG, FIELD, DFDDIS, DFDVEL)
Pseudocode for a FIESUB that calculates the force and its partials for one viscoelastic bushing is shown below:
FIESUB (...)
{
initialize force array to zero
initialize stiffness matrix array to zero
initialize damping matrix array to zero
if (initialization pass)
{
for each matrix k in the parameter list
{
define independent variable u = bushing deformation[k]
define independent variable v = bushing deformation velocity[k]
fit a surface through the data for matrix[k]
store surface polynomial coefficients in global array[k]
}
return from FIESUB
}
for each matrix k in the parameter list
{
set independent variable u = bushing deformation[k]
set independent variable v = bushing deformation velocity[k]
get data for surface polynomial from global array[k]
set force [k] = interpolated value of surface polynomial k
}
if (partial derivatives are needed)
{
for each matrix k in the parameter list
{
set independent variable u = bushing deformation[k]
set independent variable v = bushing deformation velocity[k]
get data for surface polynomial from global array[k]
set stiffness [k,k] = partial of interpolated surface with u
set damping [k,k] = partial of interpolated surface with v
}
}
}
Comments
 The image below shows an exploded view of a
Force_Field acting between two bodies.
 Equations 15 show how the deformations are calculated.
 Equation 6 defines the force implementation.
 The last four equations, 710, show the forces and torques that are applied on the two bodies.
 i_marker_id is designated as the point of application of the Force_Field. j_marker_id is the point of reaction.
 The forces acting at I and J are equal and opposite. Since there usually is a separation between J and I and the force does not act along the separation vector, the torque acting on body I is not the same as the torque acting on body J.
 The force and torque expressions (or user subroutines) must be smooth and preferably differentiable. This enables the numerical methods to deal with the force effectively.
 The FIESUB requires the following to be
calculated:
 The force and torque acting at I, given the deformation and deformation velocity.
 The partial derivative of the force with respect to the deformation (the instantaneous stiffness matrix).
 The partial derivative of the force with respect to deformation velocity (the instantaneous damping matrix).
 If you cannot calculate the partials analytically, use finite differencing. However, note that analytical partials are preferred because they are always more accurate and usually significantly less computationally expensive to evaluate.
 Force_Field elements can act on all types of bodies: Body_Rigid, Body_Flexible, and Body_Point.
 Force_Field elements may be used to efficiently model nonlinear bushings. They may also be used to model beams that do not strictly adhere to EulerBernoulli or Timoshenko theory as well as curved beams and beams with varying cross sections.