Urban Communication, 2.5G

The network planning of an urban scenario with 2.5 G is investigated.

Sites and Antennas

There are twelve antenna sites with three antennas each. The transmission sites are placed at different places and at different heights to get good data rates in almost the entire area under consideration. Each site has three sector antennas each, at 120° relative rotation, for complete 360° coverage.

Figure 1. Urban area topography and transmitter sites.

The small cell configuration used in this model is of the micro-cell type. Hence the height of each antenna is almost the same as the height of the building.

Air Interface

The air interface is defined by a GSM wireless standard (.wst) file. Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is selected for multiple access. The number of time slots on a carrier is 8.
Tip: Click Project > Edit Project Parameter and click the Air Interface tab to view the carriers and transmission modes.

Computational Method

For an urban environment such as this one, the dominant path model (DPM) is well-suited. DPM focuses on the most relevant path, which leads to shorter computation times compared to ray tracing. Regarding ray tracing, in an urban scenario, this requires a preprocessed geometry database. Since this project is not based on a preprocessed database, intelligent ray tracing model (IRT) is not available.
Tip: Click Project > Edit Project Parameter and click the Computation tab to change the model.


Propagation results show at every location the power received from each transmitting antenna.

The type of network simulation is a static simulation (homogenous traffic per cell). The network simulation calculated minimum transmission power, SNIR (max), and reception probability (including fast fading) for both downlink and uplink.

The signal propagation is strongly affected by the reflections and diffractions from buildings. These effects can be observed when results for the maximum data rate are viewed in the model.

Figure 2. Download data rates for the urban network planning.