# Solids Panel

Use the Solids panel to create solid geometry using a wide variety of methods.

Location: Geom page

## Block Subpanel

Use the Block subpanel to create 3D block-shaped solid primitives.
Four inputs are required to create a block using this method.
base node
Select the node that defines the first corner on the bottom face.
node 1
Select the node that defines the corner of the bottom face that indicates the depth.
node 2
Select the node that defines the corner of the bottom face that indicates the width.
The bottom face of the block is then completed by rotating a copy of the triangle formed by these 3 nodes 180 degrees, and then matching the line between node 1 and node 2 for each triangle to create a parallelogram.
Node 3
Select the node that defines the corner of the top face that indicates the height and angle.
The vector from the base node to node 3 provides both the height and the angle for the block. The parallelogram formed from the first set of nodes is translated along this vector to define the remaining faces.

## Cylinder Full Subpanel

Use the Cylinder Full subpanel to create fully-cylindrical, 3D solid primitives.
Four inputs are required to create a cylinder using this method.
bottom center node
Select the node that defines the center of the bottom cylinder face.
vector between the bottom center and normal vector node
Select the vector that defines the cylinder axis, thereby defining the cylinder orientation.
Note: This does not indicate the actual cylinder height.
Specify the radius of the top and bottom cylinder faces.
height
Specify the cylinder height.

## Cylinder Partial Subpanel

Use the Cylinder Partial subpanel to create 3D, partial-cylinder solid primitives.
Eight inputs are required to create a cylinder using this method.
bottom center node
Select the node that defines the center of the bottom cylinder face.
vector between the bottom center and normal vector node
Select the vector that defines the cylinder axis, thereby indicating the cylinder orientation. This does not indicate the actual cylinder height.
vector between the bottom center and major vector node
Select the vector that defines the zero-degree point of an arc defining the curved surface of the partial cylinder. This arc extends in a direction based on the normal vector using the right-hand rule, with its start angle and end angle specified relative to this vector.
Specify the radius of the top and bottom cylinder faces.
height
Specify the cylinder height.
start angle
Specify the angle that defines the starting arc angle, measured from the major vector node in a direction based on the normal vector using the right-hand rule.
end angle
Specify the angle that defines the ending arc angle, measured from the major vector node in a direction based on the normal vector using the right-hand rule.
The difference between this and the start angle determines the arc of the partial cylinder, and therefore the arc of the cutout in the partial cylinder.
For example, if your start angle is 15 degrees, and your end angle is 285 degrees, the resulting cylinder has a base with a 270 degree arc and a 90 degree cut.
axis ratio
Specify the percentage of the major vector.
This value must be greater than zero and less than or equal to 1.0. Values other than 1.0 create oval-shaped cylinders instead of circular ones.

## Cone Full Subpanel

Use the Cone Full subpanel to create 3D, full-cone solid primitives.
Five inputs are required to create a cone using this method.
bottom center node
Select the node that defines the center of the bottom cone face.
vector between the bottom center node and the normal vector node
Select the vector that defines the cone axis, thereby indicating the cone orientation.
This does not indicate the actual cone height.
Specify the radius of the top cone face.
If set to 0, a cone tip is created; if greater than zero, the cone has a flat top.
Specify the radius of the bottom cone face.
This value must be greater than 0.
height
Specify the distance between the cone's base and its top.

## Cone Partial Subpanel

Use the Cone Partial subpanel creates 3D, partial-cone solid primitives.
Five inputs are required to create a cone using this method.
bottom center node
Select the node that defines the center of the bottom cone face.
vector between the bottom center node and the normal vector node
Select the vector that defines the cone axis, thereby indicating the cone orientation.
This does not indicate the actual cone height.
vector between the bottom center node and the major vector node
Select the vector that defines the zero-degree point of an arc defining the curved surface of the partial cone. This arc extends in a direction based on the normal vector using the right-hand rule, with its start angle and end angle specified relative to this vector.
Specify the radius of the top cone face.
If set to 0, a cone tip is created; if greater than zero, the cone has a flat top.
Specify the radius of the bottom cone face.
Must be greater than 0.
height
Specify the distance between the cone's base and its top.
start angle
Specify the starting arc angle, measured from the major vector node in a direction based on the normal vector using the right-hand rule.
end angle
Specify the ending arc angle, measured from the major vector node in a direction based on the normal vector using the right-hand rule.
The difference between this and the start angle determines the arc of the partial cone, and therefore the arc of the cutout in the partial cone.
For example, if your start angle is 15 degrees, and your end angle is 285 degrees, the resulting cone has a base with a 270 degree arc and a 90 degree cut.
axis ratio
Specify the percentage of the major vector.
This value must be greater than zero and less than or equal to 1. Decimal values create oval-shaped cones instead of circular ones.

## Sphere Center and Radius Subpanel

Use the Sphere Center and Radius subpanel creates 3D sphere solid primitives by specifying the center and radius.
Two inputs are required to create a sphere using this method.
center node
Select the node that defines the center of the sphere.
A value can be specified, or a node that defines the radius (measured from the center node) can be selected.

## Sphere Four Nodes Subpanel

Use the Sphere Four Nodes subpanel to create 3D sphere solid primitives by specifying four nodes.

The selected nodes cannot all be coplanar. The smallest sphere that passes through all four nodes is created. If more than four nodes are selected, only the four most recent are used.

## Torus Center and Radius Subpanel

Use the Torus Center and Radius subpanel to create 3D torus solid primitives by specifying the center, normal direction, minor radius and major radius.
Four inputs are required to create a torus using this method.
center node
Select the node that defines the center of the torus.
vector between the center node and the normal vector node
Select the vector that defines the torus axis, thereby defining the torus orientation.
Specify the outside radius of the torus, measured from the center node.
Specify the radius of the circular cross-section of the torus.

## Torus Three Nodes Subpanel

Use the Torus Three Nodes subpanel to create 3D torus solid primitives by specifying three nodes.
Three inputs are required to create a torus using this method.
major center node
Select the node that defines the absolute center of the torus.
minor center node
Select the node that defines the center of the circular cross-section of the torus.
distance between the minor center node and the minor radius node
Specify the distance that defines the radius of the circular cross-section of the torus.

The three nodes must define a plane and cannot be collinear. The circle defined on that plane by the minor center and radius is then spun around the major center to create the torus.

## Torus Partial Subpanel

Use the Torus Partial subpanel to create 3D partial torus solid primitives.
Nine inputs are required to create a torus using this method.
center node
Select the node that defines the absolute center of the torus.
vector between the center node and the normal node
Select the vector that defines the torus axis.
vector from the center node to the major axis node
Select the vector that completes the definition of the torus plane.
Combined with the normal node, this provides the complete torus orientation.
Specify the radius that defines the outside radius of the torus, measured from the center node.
major start angle
Specify the angle that defines the starting arc angle for the major circumference (ring), measured from the torus plane in a direction based on the torus axis using the right-hand rule.
major end angle
Specify the angle that defines the ending arc angle for the major circumference (ring), measured from the torus plane in a direction based on the torus axis using the right-hand rule.
The difference between this and the major start angle determines the major arc of the torus, and therefore the arc of the major cutout in the partial torus.
For example, if your major start angle is 15 degrees, and your major end angle is 285 degrees, the resulting torus is an open ring with a 270 degree arc and a 90 degree cut.
Specify the radius that defines the radius of the circular cross-section of the torus.
minor start angle
Specify the angle that defines the starting arc angle for the minor circumference (cross-section), measured from the mid-plane of the cross-section in a direction based on the cross-section centerline using the right-hand rule.
minor end angle
Specify the angle that defines the ending arc angle for the minor circumference (cross-section), measured from the mid-plane of the cross-section in a direction based on the cross-section centerline using the right-hand rule.
The difference between this and the minor start angle determines the minor arc of the torus, and therefore the arc of the minor cutout in the partial torus.
For example, if your minor start angle is 15 degrees, and your minor end angle is 285 degrees, the resulting torus has a cross-section with a 270 degree arc and a 90 degree cut.

## Bounding Surfaces Subpanel

Use the Bounding Surfaces to create solids by converting closed surface shells which define the solid boundary.
Inputs are required to create a solid using this method.
surfaces
Select the surfaces that define the continuous, closed shell. The surface selection must be completely closed; if the surface selection contains any free edges or gaps, a solid cannot be created.
For example, a collection of surfaces representing an open cardboard box (like an empty cube, but with only five faces) will not work unless the sixth surface face is added. Similarly, a selection of surfaces that has a tiny gap where two corners do not exactly meet also will not work. When attempting to create solids in cases such as this, a red indicator will highlight problem areas. Geometry cleanup tools, such as the Edge Edit or Quick Edit panels, can then be used to correct the issues.
No solid faces may be selected as input, only true 2D surfaces.
auto select solid surfaces
Select a single surface, then automatically select the other surfaces that form a continuous shell.
This option is useful to detect selections that may have errors, as a continuous shell will not be selected.
create in
Choose a method for organizing the resulting solid body components.
current component
Organize the new solids and the selected surfaces to the current component.
surfs component
Organize the new solids to the same component that the selected surfaces already belong to. If the input surfaces are in different components, the result is not predictable.

## Spin Subpanel

Use the Spin subpanel to create solids by spinning surfaces around an axis.
Seven inputs are required to create a solid using this method.
surfaces
Select the surfaces to spin.
No solid faces may be selected as input.
merge solids at shared edges
Create a single solid with merged faces created at the shared edge locations.
Clear this checkbox to create a solid for each input surface, with shared faces created at the shared edge locations.
Note: Applies when one or more input surfaces are attached to each other. This does not apply to single surface or unconnected surface selections.
create in
Choose a method for organizing the resulting solids component.
current component
Organize the new solids and the selected surfaces to the current component.
surfs component
Organize the new solids to the same component that the selected surfaces already belong to.
The result is unpredictable if surfaces from different components become a part of the same solid.
plane/vector selection
Select the plane/vector that defines the rotation axis.
If a vector is defined or selected, this represents the axis of rotation. If a plane is defined, the plane normal represents the axis of rotation.
The base node of the plane/vector represents the center of rotation.
start angle
Specify initial angle of the solid formed by the spin, measured about the axis of rotation using the right-hand rule. The selected surfaces will be rotated this many degrees before HyperMesh extrudes the solid from them by an additional number of degrees determined by the difference between the start angle and end angle. Thus, each angle determines the position of one face along the arc of rotation, and therefore the difference between start and end angles determines the thickness of the solid through the arc.
end angle
Specify the final angle through with the surfaces are spun, thus determining the solid's thickness along the arc of rotation. The angle is measured about the axis of rotation using the right-hand rule. The total angle is given by (end angle - start angle).
spin direction
Define the direction of the spin.
spin +
Defined using the right-hand rule around the axis of rotation and uses the start angle and end angle values as specified.
spin -
Defined in the opposite direction and uses the negative of the specified start angle and end angle values.

## Drag Along Vector Subpanel

Use the Drag Along Vector to create solids by dragging surfaces along a vector.
Eight inputs are required to create a solid using this method.
surfaces
Select the surfaces to drag.
Solid faces can be selected as input.
plane/vector selector
Select the plane/vector to define the drag direction. If a vector is defined or selected, this represents the positive drag direction. If a plane is defined, the plane normal represents the positive drag direction.
keep connectivity
Maintain the connectivity of the input surfaces to any attached surfaces. If the input surface is part of a solid, this must be enabled.
merge solids at shared edges
Create a single solid with merged faces created at the shared edge locations.
Clear this checkbox to create a solid for each input surface, with shared faces created at the shared edge locations.
Note: Applies when one or more input surfaces are attached to each other. This does not apply to single surface or unconnected surface selections.
create in
Choose a method for organizing the resulting solids component.
current component
Organize the new solids and the selected surfaces to the current component.
surfs component
Organize the new solids to the same component that the selected surfaces already belong to.
The result is unpredictable if surfaces from different components become a part of the same solid.
distance
Specify the length to drag the surface along the vector.
drag direction
Define the direction of the drag.
drag +
Defined using the specified vector direction.
drag -
Defined in the opposite direction.
inflate
Create a new solid from surfaces, by extruding the surface in both directions by half of the specified thickness.

## Drag Along Line Subpanel

Use the Drag Along Line subpanel to create solids by dragging surfaces along a line.
Eight inputs are required to create a surface using this method.
lines/node list
Select the lines or node list to drag.
lines
Select the lines that the drag will follow. This can also be a series of connected lines.
node list
Select the node(s) that the line will first be fit through.
merge solids at shared edges
Create a single solid with merged faces created at the shared edge locations.
Clear this checkbox to create a solid for each input surface, with shared faces created at the shared edge locations.
Note: Applies when one or more input surfaces are attached to each other. This does not apply to single surface or unconnected surface selections.
create in
Choose a method for organizing the resulting solids component.
current component
Organize the new solids and the selected surfaces to the current component.
surfs component
Organize the new solids to the same component that the selected surfaces already belong to.
The result is unpredictable if surfaces from different components become a part of the same solid.
frame mode
Choose a method for how the surfaces are translated and rotated during the drag.
fixed frame
Only translate the surfaces during the drag, do not rotate the surfaces.
line tangent
In addition to the translation of the fixed frame option, rotate the surfaces in the same way that the tangent of the line list rotates.
frenet frame
In addition to the translation and rotation of the line tangent option, rotate the surfaces around the line list tangent axis in the same way as the curvature vector rotates.
Note: Does not work well when the curvature of the line is not smooth or there are large jumps.
reference node and transformation plane
S
Start of drag line, which is the closest end of the line to the surface vertices.
Drag + follows this direction; Drag - follows the opposite direction.
T
Tangent of drag line at S.
R
Reference node.
Translate the drag line prior to the drag. By default, R=S. If a different S is specified, the line list is translated by the vector defined from S to R.
B
Base node of the transformation plane.
N
Normal vector of the transformation plane.
transformation plane
Translate and rotate the input surfaces prior to the drag. By default, no transformation occurs (B=R and N=T). If specified, the surfaces are translated by the vector defined from R to B, and are rotated from N to T.
drag direction
Define the direction of the drag.
drag +
Defined at the start of drag line, which is the closest end of the line to the surface vertices.
drag -
Defined in the opposite direction.

## Drag Along Normal Subpanel

Use the Drag Along Normal subpanel to create solids by dragging surfaces along their normal.
Five inputs are required to create a solid using this method.
surfaces
Select the surface(s) to drag.
Solid faces can be selected as input.
keep connectivity
Maintain the connectivity of the input surfaces to any attached surfaces. If the input surface is part of a solid, this must be enabled.
merge solids at shared edges
Create a single solid with merged faces created at the shared edge locations.
Clear this checkbox to create a solid for each input surface, with shared faces created at the shared edge locations.
Note: Applies when one or more input surfaces are attached to each other. This does not apply to single surface or unconnected surface selections.
create in
Choose a method for organizing the resulting solids component.
current component
Organize the new solids and the selected surfaces to the current component.
surfs component
Organize the new solids to the same component that the selected surfaces already belong to.
The result is unpredictable if surfaces from different components become a part of the same solid.
distance
Specify the length to drag the surfaces along it normal.
drag direction
Define the direction of the drag.
drag +
Defined using the surface normal direction.
drag -
Defined in the opposite direction.

## Ruled Linear Subpanel

Use the Ruled Linear subpanel to create solids by interpolating linearly between surfaces.
Five inputs are required to create a solid using this method.
surface list
Select the surface list to use.
A linear interpolation is used between each pair of surfaces in the selection to create the solid. Multiple surfaces at the same level can be selected, as long as the selection order between different levels is not mixed.
Solid faces may be selected as input.
create ring solid
Consider the first and last surfaces in the list as a pair in order to form a closed loop solid.
split solid at shared surfaces
Split the solid at each of the input surfaces to create multiple solids with shared surfaces.
Clear this checkbox to create a single solid without shared faces.
create in
Choose a method for organizing the resulting solids component.
current component
Organize the new solids and the selected surfaces to the current component.
surfs component
Organize the new solids to the same component that the selected surfaces already belong to.
The result is unpredictable if surfaces from different components become a part of the same solid.
Select whether user-defined links are used to provide better interpolation and shape control.
default
Ignore user-defined links or guiding lines/surfaces.
Node/point links are input as pairs since a link between input surfaces is specified by its two end points/nodes. Furthermore, a pair may not skip any surface in between. For instance, if surfaces 1, 2, 3 and 4 are defined in that order as the input surface list, a link can be defined from surface 2 to 3 but not from surface 2 to 4. If such a link is detected, it is ignored. One point/node may be linked to multiple points/nodes, which results in the creation of triangular surfaces. Node/point links show graphically as a white line between the pairs, with an L at the line center. To disable a pre-defined link, right-click the L graphic. To re-enable a disabled link, left-click the L graphic.

## Ruled Smooth Subpanel

Use the Ruled Smooth subpanel to create solids by interpolating smoothly between surfaces.
Five inputs are required to create a solid using this method.
surface list
Select a surface list to use.
A smooth interpolation is used between each pair of surfaces in the selection to create the solid. Multiple surfaces at the same level can be selected, as long as the selection order between different levels is not mixed.
Solid faces may be selected as input.
create ring solid
Consider the first and last surfaces in the list as a pair in order to form a closed loop solid.
split solid at shared surfaces
Split the solid at each of the input surfaces to create multiple solids with shared surfaces.
Clear this checkbox to create a single solid without shared faces.
create in
Choose a method for organizing the resulting solids component.
current component
Organize the new solids and the selected surfaces to the current component.
surfs component
Organize the new solids to the same component that the selected surfaces already belong to.
The result is unpredictable if surfaces from different components become a part of the same solid.
Select whether user-defined links are used to provide better interpolation and shape control.
default
Ignore user-defined links or guiding lines/surfaces.
Define node/point links. Node/point links are input as pairs since a link between input surfaces is specified by its two end points/nodes. Furthermore, a pair may not skip any surface in between. For instance, if surfaces 1, 2, 3 and 4 are defined in that order as the input surface list, a link can be defined from surface 2 to 3 but not from surface 2 to 4. If such a link is detected, it is ignored. One point/node may be linked to multiple points/nodes, which results in the creation of triangular surfaces. Node/point links show graphically as a white line between the pairs, with an L at the line center. To disable a pre-defined link, right-click the L graphic. To re-enable a disabled link, left-click the L graphic.
Define guiding lines and guiding surfaces. Guiding lines are used to indicate part of the boundary of the final interpolated solid. If more than one guiding line is selected, the edges of the solid between these lines are obtained by smoothly interpolating the lines. If a guiding line extends beyond the input surfaces, that part of the line is ignored.
For guiding lines to be valid, they must:
• Connect the input surfaces at the boundaries.
• Connect to all intermediate input surfaces.
For guiding surfaces to be valid, they must:
• Link the step surfaces as a single-piece surface. In other words, if edge-A of a step surface is linked to edge-B of a step surface the linking surface must be a single surface.
• Be stitched to the edges of step surfaces.
• Link all the level surfaces of the solid. For example, if there are 3 step surfaces and one wants to use guiding surfaces, it is not enough to link only bottom and middle surfaces by a guiding surface. One needs to link the middle and the top surface also.
• If two or more guiding surfaces are located next to each other, they must be stitched together properly.
If any conditions are not met, those guiding lines/surfaces will be ignored.

In the case of a surface with a scratch, if one of the internal points of the scratch is not linked to another surface at its boundary, this scratch is treated as if it is not part of the boundary, that is, as if it does not exist. If the scratch is linked upward but not downward, then is it considered a part of the boundary while constructing surfaces between its level and the level above, but it is ignored while constructing boundary with the surface below.

All the surfaces at each level must have the same number of internal loops, if any. Currently, only one internal loop at each level is supported. Cases with more than one internal loop will generate solids, but the matching between loops may not be desirable.