# Post-processing

## Using shell elements, I asked for strain Time History output (RunnameT01) and Animation files, but the values remain equal to zero; why?

The strain tensor is not computed by default; it must be asked for in the Radioss input file (Runname_0000.rad) by setting
flag `I`_{strain} (flag to compute strains for
post-processing) to 1 in option /DEF_SHELL
or in the shell property set.

On the contrary, the strain tensor is always computed and available for /MAT/LAW25 (COMPSH) and /MAT/LAW27 (PLAS_BRIT).

## /ANIM/ELEM, BRICK or /SHELL/EPSD & Variable EPSD for a group of shells or 3-node shells for Time History: I asked for strain rate output but the values remain equal to zero into post-processors; why?

Strain rate filtering needs to be activated (`F`_{smooth}=1), but it is available for most material
laws but not for all.

It is not possible to get these outputs if the material law does not allow filtering (or
“smooth”) the strain rate. On the contrary, using `F`_{smooth} =1 and `F`_{cut} =1.E+30 will allow for all these laws to
get these outputs without filtering the strain rate (indeed, filtering is activated but the
cut-off frequency is so high that no filtering happens at all).

In certain cases, the outputs are also available even if strain rate filtering had not been
asked for (`F`_{smooth} =0).

This variable EPSD is available for both Animations and Time History in case of shell elements; it is only available for Animations in case of solid elements.

Material Law | Available with V51? | Available with V90? |
---|---|---|

LAW2 | In any case | In any case |

LAW15 | If F_{smooth}=1 |
If F_{smooth}=1 |

LAW25 | If F_{smooth}=1 |
If F_{smooth}=1 |

LAW27 | If F_{smooth}=1 |
If F_{smooth}=1 |

LAW36 | In any case | In any case |

LAW44 | If F_{smooth}=1 |
If F_{smooth}=1 |

LAW48 | If F_{smooth}=1 |
If F_{smooth}=1 |

Material Law | Available with V51? | Available with V90? |
---|---|---|

LAW2 | In any case | In any case |

LAW36 | In any case | In any case |

LAW44 | If F_{smooth}=1 |
If F_{smooth}=1 |

LAW48 | If F_{smooth}=1 |
If F_{smooth}=1 |

LAW50 | If F_{smooth}=1 |
If F_{smooth}=1 |

## What are the stresses `SIGX`

, `SIGY`

, and
`VONM`

in Animation files if I use integration points for the
shells?

The stresses `SIGX`

, `SIGY`

… in Animation files represent the
mean stresses through the thickness of the shell element. The `VONM`

stress
represents the von Mises criteria applied to these mean stresses `SIGX`

,
`SIGY`

… In the same way the stresses F1, F2, F12, Q1 and Q2 given in Time
History correspond to these mean stresses.

## Which value is output when using /ANIM/ELEM/EPSP when using different element type?

- For Bricks
It is the mean value calculated using relative volumes of the different integration points.

- For Quads
/ANIM/ELEM/EPSP is not available for Quad element. No value will be output.

- For Shells
- The plastic strain at the middle integration point is output. When an even number of integration points are requested, then the N/2 + 1 integration point is output.
- For 4-node shell element with
`I`_{shell}=12 (QBAT) element formulation, the mean value of EPSP of the 4 in-plane gauss points of the middle integration point is output. - It is recommended to use /ANIM/SHELL/EPSP/Keyword4, to get the plastic strain results at the upper and lower integration points. Especially in bending, the plastic strain in mid-layer will be less than the outer integration points.

- For Beams
It is the mean value calculated using the relative areas of the different integration points.

## What is the output to Animation files with /ANIM/ … /ENER?

The specific energy per mass unit.

## What is the output to Animation files with /ANIM/ … /HOUR?

The Hourglass energy per mass unit.

## Using shell elements with QEPH formulation (`I`_{shell}=24), the hourglass energy of the part and
the subset are not equal to zero in Time History; why?

When looking to the SUBSET or the PART in Time History, the hourglass energy is not zero.

This is because energy absorbed due to the numerical damping is output there. This means, in output the place of hourglass energy has been used to present this viscous energy.

The viscous energy is related to coefficient dn for shell property which using QEPH (`I`_{shell} =24) and QBAT and DKT18 (`I`_{shell} =12 or `I`_{sh3n} =30).

The energy corresponding to the physical stabilization of hourglass is counted as internal energy for this formulation.

## Using /ANIM/GZIP the Animation files are not readable; why?

This option uses the Gnu tool: GZIP which is normally available on Linux. Verify that it is installed correctly on the machine Radioss is running on. On Windows, GZIP is included with the HyperWorks installation.

## What is the difference between /ANIM and /OUTP for EPSP output?

Runname_nnnn.sty files contain both membrane and max (over the integration points through the thickness) values; whereas Annn files contain only membrane value.

## Is it possible to get more (or less) Animation files while a computation is running?

Yes it is possible to write an Animation file by writing a control file in the data directory.

For the run number nn (/RUN/Runname/nn in the Radioss Engine input file), you have to write the file Runname_nn_0000_[C].rst with the process /ANIM in it.

Radioss Engine writes an Animation file at this time.

The other options available with control files are described in the Control File (C-File) file.

In order to change the Animation files writing frequency, you have to stop your Radioss computation while writing a RESTART file, by using a control file (option /STOP). Then you can chain a second run with a different frequency for the Animation files writing.

## How can I plot deleted elements to understand the propagation of a fracture?

Select HyperView to display Eroded Elements.

menu inThis will help you to understand the propagation of a fracture.

## How is the generalized stress tensor /ANIM/SHELL/TENS/MEMB and /ANIM/SHELL/TENS/BEND computed?

The generalized membrane and bending stress tensor is computed for each plane (layer) according the deformation, the bending behavior of the shell elements, and the material law

- For global integration, (N=0)The exact computation is done from the generalized strain tensor and the result will correspond to:
(2) $${\sigma}_{g}=\left\{\begin{array}{c}Membrane\begin{array}{c}\end{array}stress=\frac{1}{t}\underset{-t/2}{\overset{+t/2}{{\displaystyle \int}}}\sigma dz\\ Bending\begin{array}{c}\end{array}stress=\frac{1}{{t}^{2}}\underset{-t/2}{\overset{+t/2}{{\displaystyle \int}}}\sigma zdz\end{array}\right\}$$ - For multiple integration points through the thickness (N > 0)The generalized stress ( ${\sigma}_{g}$ ) is computed for each plane (layer) and integrated according to the defined weights, which includes the position through the thickness and the relative thickness.
(3) $${\sigma}_{g}=\left\{\begin{array}{c}Membrane\begin{array}{c}\end{array}stress={\displaystyle \sum}_{i=1}^{N}{w}_{i}^{N}\cdot {\sigma}_{i}\\ Bending\begin{array}{c}\end{array}stress={\displaystyle \sum}_{i=1}^{N}{w}_{i}^{M}\cdot {\sigma}_{i}\end{array}\right\}$$Weight for membrane stress tensor ( ${w}_{i}^{N}$ ) computation.#point(s) ${w}_{i}^{N}$ 1 1.0000 2 0.5000 0.5000 3 0.2500 0.5000 0.2500 4 0.1667 0.3333 0.3333 0.1667 5 0.1250 0.2500 0.2500 0.2500 0.1250 6 0.1000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.2000 0.1000 7 0.0833 0.1667 0.1667 0.1667 0.1667 0.1667 0.0833 8 0.0714 0.1429 0.1429 0.1429 0.1429 0.1429 0.1429 0.0714 9 0.0625 0.1250 0.1250 0.1250 0.1250 0.1250 0.1250 0.1250 0.0625 10 0.0556 0.1111 0.1111 0.1111 0.1111 0.1111 0.1111 0.1111 0.1111 0.0556 Weight for bending stress tensor ( ${w}_{i}^{M}$ ) computation.#point(s) ${w}_{i}^{M}$ 1 0.0000 2 -0.0833 0.0833 3 -0.0833 0.0000 0.0833 4 -0.0648 -0.0556 0.0556 0.0648 5 -0.0521 -0.0625 0.0000 0.0625 0.0521 6 -0.0433 -0.0600 -0.0200 0.0200 0.0600 0.0433 7 -0.0370 -0.0556 -0.0278 0.0000 0.0278 0.0556 0.03 8 -0.0323 -0.0510 -0.0306 -0.0102 0.0102 0.0306 0.0510 0.0323 9 -0.0286 -0.0469 -0.0313 -0.0156 0.0000 0.0156 0.0313 0.0469 0.0286 10 -0.0257 -0.0432 -0.0309 -0.0185 -0.0062 0.0062 0.0185 0.0309 0.0432 0.0257

For the shell property defined by layers, /PROP/TYPE10 (SH_COMP), /PROP/TYPE11 (SH_SANDW), /PROP/TYPE17 (STACK).

`N`=1 defines a membrane element. The bending stress tensor is zero.- For fully integrated element shells (
`I`_{shell}=12), the stress tensor output for each plane (layer) is the average value of the 4 Gauss points. - For the property /PROP/TYPE51, several integration points through the thickness can be defined for each layer. The generalized stress computation will be done according to the shell property defined by the layers with different height through the thickness (z) using the layer position and the selected distribution through the layer formulation (/PROP/TYPE51).
- Integration points through shell thickness:
Number of Integration Points Distribution of Integration Points Number of Layer /PROP/TYPE1 `N`( $0\le N\le 100$ )

Lobatto integration scheme - /PROP/TYPE9 `N`( $1\le N\le 100$ )

Lobatto integration scheme - /PROP/TYPE10 1 per layer Middle of layer `N`( $0\le N\le 100$ )

/PROP/TYPE11 1 per layer Middle of layer `N`( $0\le N\le 100$ )

/PROP/TYPE16 1 per layer Middle of layer `N`( $0\le N\le 100$ )

/PROP/TYPE17 `Npt_ply`in /PROP/TYPE19( $1\le Npt\_ply\le 9$ )

Uniform integration scheme `Pply_IDi`( $1\le Pply\_IDi\le n$ )

/PROP/TYPE51 `Npt_ply`in /PROP/TYPE19( $1\le Npt\_ply\le 9$

`I`_{int}=1:Uniform integration scheme

`I`_{int}=2:Gauss integration scheme

`Pply_IDi`( $1\le Pply\_IDi\le n$ )

For the position and weight of the Gauss integration scheme and Lobatto integration scheme, refer to “Integration points throughout the thickness” in the Theory Manual.