Appendix A: Conversion Tables and Constants

表 1. Length
US & UK >> Metric System Metric System >> US & UK
1 Inch (in) - US 25.40005 mm 1 millimeter (mm) 0.03937 in (US)
1 Inch (in) - UK 25.39996 mm 1 millimeter (mm) 0.03937 in (UK)
1 Foot (ft) = (12.in) - US 0.3048006 m 1 meter (m) 3.28083 ft (US)
1 Foot (ft) = (12.in) - UK 0.3047995 m 1 meter (m) 3.28083 ft (UK)
1 Yard (yd) = (3.ft) - US 0.9144018 m 1 meter (m) 1.093611 yd (US)
1 Yard (yd) = (3.ft) - US 0.9144018 m 1 meter (m) 1.093611 yd (US)
1 Yard (yd) = (3.ft) - UK 0.9143984 m 1 meter (m) 1.093611 yd (UK)
1 Mile (mi) = (1760.yd) - US 1.609347 km 1 kilometer (km) 1 kilometer (km)
1 Mile (mi) = (1760.yd) - UK 1.609341 km 1.609341 km 0.6213724 mi (UK)
1 Nautical mile (UK) 1.853181 km 1 kilometer (km) 0.5396127 n.mi (UK)
表 2. Surface
US & UK >> Metric System Metric System >> US & UK
    1 hectare (ha) 2.471044 acre (US)
1 Acre - US 0.4046873 ha 1 hectare (ha) 2.471044 acre (US)
1 Acre - US 0.4046873 ha 1 hectare (ha) 2.471044 acre (US)
1 Acre - UK 0.4046842 ha 1 hectare (ha) 2.4711 acre (UK)
1 Square inch (sq in) - US 6.451626 cm2 1 Square centimeter (cm2) 0.1549997 sq. in (US)
1 Square inch (sq in) - UK 6.451578 cm2 1 Square centimeter (cm2) 0.1550 sq.in (UK)
1 Square foot (sq ft) = 144 sq in - US 0.09290341 m2 1 Square meter (m2) 10.76387 sq.ft (US)
1 Square foot (sq ft) = 144 sq in - UK 0.09290272 m2 1 Square meter (m2) 10.7639 sq.ft (UK)
1 Square yard (sq yd) = 9 sq.ft - US 0.8361307 m2 1 Square meter (m2) 1.195985 sq.yd (US)
1 Square yard (sq yd) = 9 sq.ft - UK 0.8361245 m2 1 Square meter (m2) 1.1960 sq.yd (UK)
1 Square mile (sq mi) = 640 acres - US 2.589998 km2 1 Square kilometer (km2) 0.3861006 sq.mi (US)
1 Square mile (sq mi) = 640 acres - UK 2.589979 km2 1 Square kilometer (km2) 0.3861 sq.mi (UK)
表 3. Volume
US & UK >> Metric System Metric System >> US & UK
1 Cubic inch (cu in) - US 16.3871 cm3 1 Cubic centimeter (cm3) 0.06102509 cu in (US)
1 Cubic inch (cu in) - UK 16.38698 cm3 1 Cubic centimeter (cm3) 0.0610241 cu in (UK)
1 Cubic foot (cu ft) - US 28.31702 dm3 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 0.03531544 cu ft (US)
1 Cubic foot (cu ft - (UK) 28.31670 dm3 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 0.0353148 cu ft (UK)
1 Cubic yard (cu yd) - US 0.7645594 m3 1 Cubic meter (m3) 1.307943 cu yd (US)
1 Cubic yard (cu yd) - UK 0.7645509 m3 1 Cubic meter (m3) 1.307957 cu yd (UK)
表 4. Measure of Capacity: Volume
US & UK >> Metric System Metric System >> US & UK
1 fluid ounce (fl oz) - US 29.5735 cm3 (or ml) 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 33.814 fl oz
1 fluid ounce (fl oz) - UK 28.4131 cm3 (or ml) 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 35.195 fl oz
1 Bushel (US) 35.23829 dm3 (or liter) 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 0.0283782 bu (US)
1 Bushel (UK) 36.36770 dm3 (or liter) 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 0.02749692 bu (UK)
1 Gallon (US) 3.785329 dm3 (or liter) 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 0.2641779 gal (US)
1 Gallon (UK) 4.545963 dm3 (or liter) 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 0.2199754 gal (UK)
1 Liquid pint (US) 0.4731661 dm3 (or liter) 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 2.113423 liq.pt (US)
1 Pint(pt) = 20 fl oz - UK 0.5682454 dm3 (or liter) 1 Cubic decimeter (dm3) 1.759803 pt (UK)
表 5. Mass
US & UK >> Metric System Metric System >> US & UK
1Grain (gr) - US 64.79892 mg 1 milligram (mg) 0.01543236 gr (US)
1Grain (gr) - UK 64.79892 mg 1 milligram (mg) 0.01543236 gr (UK)
1Ounce (oz) - US 28.34953 g 1 gram (g) 0.03527396 oz av. (US)
1Ounce (oz) - UK 28.34953 g 1 gram (g) 0.03527396 oz av. (UK)
1Pound (lb) = 16 oz - US 0.4535924 kg 1 kilogram (kg) 2.204622 lb av. (US)
1Short hundredweight(sh cwt)= 100 Ib - US 45.35924 kg 1kilogram (kg) 0.02204622 sh.cwt (US)
1Cental (UK) 45.35924 kg 1 kilogram (kg) 0.02204622 ctl (UK)
1Long ton (l tn) = 2240 Ib - US 1.016047 t 1 ton 0.9842064 l.tn (US)
1Ton (UK) 1.016047 t 1 ton 0.9842064 tn (UK)
注:
  • Attention should be paid to not confuse mass and weight.
  • The mass (kg) is an intrinsic characteristic of the body and is measured in kilogram.
  • The weight is a force which depends on terrestrial attraction and it is the equivalent of the mass of a body by the acceleration of gravity (9.80665 at the sea level) and is measured in Newton [ N ].
  • The specific mass is the quotient of the mass of a body by its volume.
  • The unit of mass of S.I. = kilogram.
表 6. Speed (the unit speed of the S.I = meter per second)
Symbol SI Equivalent Designation of Unit Measure
1 Bz = 1 m/s benz
1 cm/min = 1.66667 x 10-4 m/s centimeter per minute
1 cm/s = 0.01 m/s centimeter per second
1 ft/h, fph = 8.46667 x 10-5 m/s foot per hour
1 ft/min, fpm = 0.00508 m/s foot per minute
1 ft/s, fps = 0.3048 m/s foot per second
1 furlong/fortnight = 1.66309 x 10-4 m/s furlong per fortnight
1 in/s, ips = 0.0254 m/s inch per second
1 km/h = 0.277778 m/s kilometer per hour
1 kn, knot = 0.514444 m/s knot (node)
1 cm/s = 0.01 m/s kyne
1 m/min = 166.667 m/s meter per minute
1 m/s = 1 m/s meter per second
1 mpy = 8.04327 x 10-13 m/s mil per year
1 knot = 0.514444 m/s mile (naut.) per hour (knot. node)
1 mph, mi/h = 0.44704 m/s mile (stat.) per hour
mi/min = 26.8224 m/s mile (stat.) per minute
1 mm/min = 1.66667 x 10-5 m/s millimeter per minute
1 mm/s = 0.001 m/s millimeter per second
表 7. Temperature
Conversion Type Conversion Formula
Degrees Celsius (C) to degrees Kelvin (K) = (C) + 273.15 = (K)
Degrees Celsius (C) to degrees Fahrenheit (F) = [(C) * 1.8] + 32 = (F)
Degrees Celsius (C) to degrees Rankine (R) = [(C) * 1.8] + 491.67 = (R)
Degrees Fahrenheit (F) to degrees Kelvin (K) = [(F) * 0.555556] + 255.37 = (K)
Degrees Fahrenheit (F) to degrees Rankine (R) = (F) + 459.67 = (R)
Degrees Kelvin (K) to degrees Rankine (R) = (K) * 1.8 = (R)
Degrees Rankine (R) to degrees Celsius (C) = [(R) - 491.67] * 0.555556 = (C)
Degrees Rankine (R) to degrees Kelvin (K) = (R) * 0.555556 = (K)
表 8. Pressure
Symbol SI Equivalent Designation of Unit Measure
1 at = 98066.5 Pa atmosphere (metric)
1 atm = 101325 Pa atmosphere (standard)
1 bar = 100000 Pa bar
1 cmHg (0° C) = 1333.22 Pa centimeter of mercury (0° C)
1 cmH2O = 98.0638 Pa centimeter of water (4° C)
1 dyn/cm2 = 0.1 Pa dyne per square centimeter
1 ft H2O = 2988.98 Pa foot of water (4° C)
1 hPa = 100 Pa hectopascal
1 inHg (0° C) = 3386.38 Pa inch of mercury (0° C)
1 inHg (15.56° C) = 3377.18 Pa inch of mercury (15.56° C)
1 inH2O (15.56° C) = 248.845 Pa inch of water (15.56° C)
1 inH2O (4° C) = 249.082 Pa inch of water (4° C)
1 kgf/cm2 = 98066.5 Pa kilogram force per square centimeter
1 kgf/dm2 = 980.665 Pa kilogram force per square decimeter
1 kgf/m2 = 9.80665 Pa kilogram force per square meter
1 kgf/mm2 = 9806650 Pa kilogram force per square millimeter
1 kPa = 1000 Pa kilopascal
1 kip/in2, ksi, KSI = 6894760 Pa kilopound force per square inch
1 MPa = 1000000 Pa megapascal
1 mH2O, mCE (15.56° C) = 9797.06 Pa meter of water (15.56° C)
1 mH2O, mCE (4° C) = 9806.38 Pa meter of water (4° C)
1 μ bar = 0.1 Pa microbar (barye, barrie)
1 μ Hg (0° C) = 0.133322 Pa micron of mercury (millitorr)
1 mbar = 100 Pa millibar
1 mmHg, torr, Torr (0 °C) = 133.322 Pa millimeter of mercury (0° C)
1 mmH2O, mmCE (15.56° C) = 9.79706 Pa millimeter of water (15.56° C)
1 mmH2O, mmCE (4° C) = 9.80638 Pa millimeter of water (4° C)
1 N/m2 = 1 Pa newton per square meter
1 Pa, N/m2 = 1 Pa pascal
1 lbf/ft2 = 47.8803 Pa pound force per square foot
1 psi, PSI, lbf/in2 = 6894.76 Pa pound force per square inch
1 atm = 101325 Pa standard atmosphere
1 tonf/cm2 (metric) = 98066500 Pa ton force (metric) per square centimeter
1 tonf/m2 (metric) = 9806.65 Pa ton force (metric) per square meter
1 torr = 133.322 Pa torr
表 9. Flows Rate (Equivalence)
Symbol SI Equivalent Designation of Unit Measure
1 acre-ft/month = 4.69361 x 10-4 m3/s acre foot per month
1 bbl (US, liq.)/day = 1.3801 x 10-6 m3/s barrel (US, liq.) per day
1 bbl (US, petrol)/day = 1.84013 x 10-6 m3/s barrel (US, petrol) per day
1 cm3/s = 1 x 10-6 m3/s cubic centimeter per second
1 CFM, cfm, ft3/min = 4.71947 x 10-4 m3/s cubic foot per minute
1 cfs, ft3/s = 0.0283168 m3/s cubic foot per second
1 in3/min = 2.73118 x 10-7 m3/s cubic inch per minute
1 in3/s = 1.63871 x 10-5 m3/s cubic inch per second
1 m3/h = 2.77778 x 10-4 m3/s cubic meter per hour
1 m3/min = 0.0166667 m3/s cubic meter per minute
1 m3/s = 1 m3/s cubic meter per second
1 yd3/min = 0.0127426 m3/s cubic yard per minute
1 cumec = 1 m3/s cumec (musec)
1 gal (UK)/day = 5.26168 x 10-8 m3/s gallon (UK) per day
1 gph (UK) = 1.2628 x 10-6 m3/s gallon (UK) per hour
1 gpm (UK) = 7.57682 x 10-5 m3/s gallon (UK) per minute
1 gps (UK) = 4.54609 x 10-3 m3/s gallon (UK) per second
1 gal (US, liq.)/day = 4.38126 x 10-8 m3/s gallon (US, liq.) per day
1 gph (US) = 1.0515 x 10-6 m3/s gallon (US, liq.) per hour
1 gpm (US) = 6.30902 x 10-5 m3/s gallon (US, liq.) per minute
1 gps (US) = 0.00378541 m3/s gallon (US, liq.) per second
1 l/h = 2.77778 x 10-7 m3/s liter per hour
1 l/min = 1.66667 x 10-5 m3/s liter per minute
1 l/s = 0.001 m3/s liter per second
表 10. Material Constants
  Density

(kg/m^3)

Elastic Modulus

(Pa)

Poisson's Ratio Thermal Expansion Coefficient

(Microns/m C)

Heat Capacity

J/kg(°C)

Aluminum 2024-T3 2770 7.310E+10 0.3300 22.68 963.00
Aluminum 6061-T6 2700 7.310E+10 0.3300 24.30 963.00
Aluminum 7079-T6 2740 7.172E+10 0.3300 24.66 963.00
Concrete 2242       1000
Copper - pure 8900 1.172E+11   16.56 385.00
Gold - pure 19320 7.448E+10 0.4200 4.39 130.00
Iron 7830       440.00
Lead - pure 11340 1.379E+10 0.4200 52.74 130.00
Magnesium AZ31B-H24 1770 4.483E+10 0.3500 26.10 1047
Magnesium HK31A-H24 1790 4.414E+10 0.3500 25.20 544.00
Nickel - pure 8900 2.207E+11   12.96 461.00
Platinum 21450 1.469E+11 0.3900 9.0000 130.00
Silver - pure 10500 7.241E+10 0.3700 19.80 235.00
Steel AISI 304 8030 1.931E+11 0.2900 17.82 503.00
Steel AISI C1020 7850 2.034E+11 0.2900 11.34 419.00
Tantalum 16600 1.862E+11 0.3500 6.4800 126.00
Titanium B 120VCA 4850 1.021E+11 0.3000 9.3600 544.00
Tungsten 19300 3.448E+11 0.2800 4.5000 138.00
表 11. Heat Capacity Coefficients
    Molar Weight Heat Capacity
  Gas MW [kg/mol] a [J/(mol K)] b [J/(mol K2)] c [J/(mol K3)] d [J/(mol K4)] e [J K/mol] Temp.range [K]
Nitrogen N2 0,02801 26,092000 8,2188E-03 -1,9761E-06 1,5927E-10 4,4434E+04 298-6000
Oxygen O2 0,032 29,659000 6,1373E-03 -1,1865E-06 9,5780E-11 -2,1966E+05 298-6000
Carbon dioxide CO2 0,04401 24,997350 5,5187E-02 -3,3691E-05 7,9484E-09 -1,3664E+05 298-1200
Carbon monoxide CO 0,02801 25,567590 6,0961E-03 4,0547E-06 -2,6713E-09 1,3102E+05 298-1300
Argon Ar 0,03995 20,786000 2,8259E-10 -1,4642E-13 1,0921E-17 -3,6614E-02 298-6000
Neon Ne 0,02018 20,786030 4,8506E-13 -1,5829E-16 1,5251E-20 3,1963E-05 298-6000
Helium He 0,004 20,786030 4,8506E-13 -1,5929E-16 1,5251E-20 3,1963E-05 298-6000
Hydrogen H2 0,00202 33,066178 -1,1363E-02 1,1433E-05 -2,7729E-09 -1,5856E+05 298-1000
Water vapour H2O 0,01802 30,092000 6,8325E-03 6,7934E-06 -2,5345E-09 8,2139E+04 500-1700
Ammonia NH3 0,01703 19,995630 4,9771E-02 -1,5376E-05 1,9212E-09 1,8917E+05 298-1400
Hydrogen sulphide H2S 0,03408 26,884120 1,8678E-02 3,4342E-06 -3,3787E-09 1,3588E+05 298-1400
Benzene C6H6 0,07811 -36,220000 4,8475E-01 -3,1570E-04 7,7620E-08 0,0000E+00 298-1500
Nitrous oxide N2O 0,04401 27,679880 5,1149E-02 -3,0645E-05 6,8479E-09 -1,5791E+05 298-1400
表 12. Conversion of Unit Systems
Length Time Mass Force Pressure Velocity ρ Energy G
m s Kg Kg m/s2 N/m2 m/s Kg/m3 Kmg2/s2 9.81
m s Kg N Pa m/s m Kg/l J 9.81
m s g mN mPa m/s μ Kg/l mJ 9.81
m s Mg(ton KN KPa m/s Kg/l KJ 9.81
m ms Kg MN MPa Km/s m Kg/l MJ 9.81e-6
m ms g KN KPa Km/s μ Kg/l KJ 9.81e-6
m ms Mg(ton) GN GPa K/ms Kg/l GJ 9.81e-6
mm s Kg mN KPa mm/s M Kg/l μ J 9.81e+3
mm s g μ N Pa mm/s K Kg/l nJ 9.81e+3
mm s Mg(ton) N MPa mm/s G Kg/l mJ 9.81e+3
mm ms Kg KN GPa m/s M Kg/l J 9.81e-3
mm ms g N MPa m/s K Kg/l mJ 9.81e-3
mm ms Mg(ton) MN TPa m/s G Kg/l KJ 9.81e-3
cm ms g daN 105Pa dam/s Kg/l dJ 9.81e-4
        bar        
cm ms Kg 104N 108Pa dam/s K Kg/l dJ 9.81e-4
      (KdaN) (Kbar)        
cm ms Mg(ton) 107N 1011Pa dam/sM K Kg/l 105J 9.81e-4
      (MdaN) (Mbar)        
cm μ s g 107N 1011Pa 104m/s Kg/l 105J 9.81e-10
      (MdaN) (Mbar)