# Beam Type Spring Elements (TYPE13)

- Traction / compression
- Torsion
- Bending (two modes)
- Shear (two modes)

Beam type spring elements are defined as property TYPE13 elements. This type of spring element
functions as if it were a beam element. The six independent modes of deformation
are:

- Traction / compression
- Torsion
- Bending (two modes)
- Shear (two modes)

Beam type springs only function if their length is not zero. A physical representation of a beam
type spring can be seen in Figure 1.

**Time Step**

**Linear Spring**

**Nonlinear Elastic Spring**

**Nonlinear Elasto-Plastic Spring - Isotropic Hardening**

**Nonlinear Elasto-Plastic Spring - Decoupled Hardening**

**Nonlinear Elasto-Plastic Spring - Kinematic Hardening**

**Nonlinear Elasto-Plastic Spring - Nonlinear Unloading**

**Nonlinear Dashpot**

**Nonlinear Visco-Elastic Spring**

**Skew Frame Properties**

**Sign Conventions**

**Tension**

**Shear - XY**

**Shear - XZ**

**Torsion**

**Bending About the Y Axis**

**Bending About the Z Axis**

**Multidirectional Failure Criteria**