# Turbulence Modeling

AcuSolve supports a variety of turbulence models for fluid flow simulations.

For steady state simulations the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved to arrive directly at the time averaged flow field. In case of transient simulations the governing equations are integrated in time to yield an accurate description of the flow field. There are also many different turbulence closure methods available for each type of simulation.

- One Equation and Two Equation Models
- Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model
- Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) Models
- SA – DES
- Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Models
- Classical (Smaroginsky) model

## Turbulent Boundary Layer Modeling

- Fully Resolved
- This approach integrates equations directly to the wall and uses near wall damping functions to produce appropriate behavior.
- Wall Function
- This approach uses a wall model based on the standard Law of the Wall for turbulent boundary layers.
- Running Average Wall Function
- This approach enforces the Law of the Wall on the running average flow field.

The wall functions used in AcuSolve are valid through the viscous sublayer and the buffer layer and have the advantage of having no lower bound limit. The upper bound limit for $y+$ is 300.