Specifies a diffusivity model for the species transport equations.


AcuSolve Command


CONDUCTIVITY_MODEL("name") {parameters...}


User-given name.


type (enumerated) [=none]
Type of diffusivity.
constant or const
Constant diffusivity. Requires diffusivity.
ramped or ramp
Ramp the diffusivity to a constant value. Requires diffusivity.
piecewise_linear or linear
Piecewise linear curve fit. Requires curve_fit_values and curve_fit_variable.
cubic_spline or spline
Cubic spline curve fit. Requires curve_fit_values and curve_fit_variable.
user_function or user
User-defined function. Requires user_function, user_values and user_strings.
diffusivity or diff (real) >=0 [=0]
Constant value of diffusivity. Used with constant and ramped types.
curve_fit_values or curve_values (array) [={0,0}]
A two-column array of independent-variable/diffusivity data values. Used with piecewise_linear and cubic_spline types.
curve_fit_variable or curve_var (enumerated) [=temperature]
Independent variable of the curve fit. Used with piecewise_linear and cubic_spline types.
x_coordinate or xcrd
X-component of coordinates.
y_coordinate or ycrd
Y-component of coordinates.
z_coordinate or zcrd
Z-component of coordinates.
x_reference_coordinate or xrefcrd
X-component of reference coordinates.
y_reference_coordinate or yrefcrd
Y-component of reference coordinates.
z_reference_coordinate or zrefcrd
Z-component of reference coordinates.
temperature or temp
species_1 or spec1
Species 1.
species_2 or spec2
Species 2.
species_3 or spec3
Species 3.
species_4 or spec4
Species 4.
species_5 or spec5
Species 5.
species_6 or spec6
Species 6.
species_7 or spec7
Species 7.
species_8 or spec8
Species 8.
species_9 or spec9
Species 9.
user_function or user (string) [no default]
Name of the user-defined function. Used with user_function type.
user_values (array) [={}]
Array of values to be passed to the user-defined function. Used with user_function type.
user_strings (list) [={}]
Array of strings to be passed to the user-defined function. Used with user_function type.
multiplier_function (string) [=none]
User-given name of the multiplier function for scaling the viscosity. If none, no scaling is performed.
turbulent_schmidt_number or turb_sc (real) >0 [=0.91]
Value of the turbulent Schmidt number. Used with turbulence models.


This command specifies a diffusivity model for the species transport equations. This model is only applicable to fluid element sets.

DIFFUSIVITY_MODEL commands are referenced by MATERIAL_MODEL commands, which in turn are referenced by ELEMENT_SET commands:
DIFFUSIVITY_MODEL( "my diffusivity model" ) {
   type                                = constant 
   diffusivity                         = 1
 MATERIAL_MODEL( "my material model" ) {
   diffusivity_1_model                 = "my diffusivity model"
 ELEMENT_SET( "fluid elements" ) {
   material_model                      = "my material model"
The diffusion flux vector Ψ is given by:(1)
Ψ = d φ

where d is the diffusivity for species φ

A constant diffusivity model applies a spatially constant diffusivity, as in the above example.

A ramped diffusivity model is the same as the constant one, except that the diffusivity is ramped down from 1000 times the diffusivity value at time step one to the diffusivity value at time step ten. For example,
DIFFUSIVITY_MODEL( "ramped diffusivity model" ) {
   type              = ramped 
   diffusivity       = 1

starts at diffusivity of 1000 at time step one and reduces the diffusivity until time step 10, at which time a diffusivity of one is used.

Diffusivity models of types piecewise_linear and cubic_spline may be used to define diffusivity as a function of a single independent variable. For example,
DIFFUSIVITY_MODEL( "curve fit diffusivity model" ) {
   type                 = piecewise_linear
   curve_fit_values     = { 273, 1.0 ;    
                            323, 1.1 ;    
                            373, 1.3 ;    
                            423, 1.6 ;
   curve_fit_variable   = temperature 

defines diffusivity as a function of temperature. In this case, the problem must contain a temperature equation; see the EQUATION command. The curve_fit_values parameter is a two-column array corresponding to the independent variable and the diffusivity values. The independent variable values must be in ascending order. The limit point values of the curve fit are used when curve_fit_variable falls outside of the curve fit limits.

The curve_fit_values data may be read from a file. For the above example, the curve fit values may be placed in a file, such as diffusivity.fit:
273      1.0 
323      1.1
373      1.3
423      1.6
and read by:
DIFFUSIVITY_MODEL( "curve fit diffusivity model" ) {
   type                    = piecewise_linear
   curve_fit_values        = Read( "diffusivity.fit"
   curve_fit_variable      = temperature 

A diffusivity of type user_function may be used to model more complex behaviors; see the AcuSolve User- Defined Functions Manual for a detailed description of user-defined functions.

For example, consider a diffusivity model which is a linear function of temperature and species one. Then the input command may be given by:
DIFFUSIVITY_MODEL( "UDF diffusivity model" ) {
   type                 = user_function 
   user_function        = "usrDiffusivityExample"
   user_values          = { 1.0,  # constant value    
                            0.1,  # temperature scale    
                            0.2 } # species scale
where the user-defined function "usrDiffusivityExample" may be implemented as follows:
#include "acusim.h"
#include "udf.h"
UDF_PROTOTYPE( usrDiffusivityExample ) ;                      /* function prototype               */
Void usrDiffusivityExample (
    UdfHd     udfHd,                                          /* Opaque handle for accessing data */
	Real*     outVec,                                         /* Output vector                    */
	Integer   nItems,                                         /* Number of elements               */
	Integer   vecDim                                          /* = 1                              */
) {
    Integer   elem ;                                          /* an element counter               */
    Real      diff0 ;                                         /* reference diffusivity            */
    Real      sScale ;                                        /* species scale                    */
    Real      tScale ;                                        /* temperature scale                */
    Real*     spec ;                                          /* species field                    */
    Real*     temp ;                                          /* temperature field                */
    Real*     usrVals ;                                       /* user values                      */
udfCheckNumUsrVals( udfHd, 3 ) ;                              /* check for error                  */
    usrVals   = udfGetUsrVals( udfHd ) ;                      /* get the user vals                */
    diff0     = usrVals[0] ;                                  /* reference diff.                  */
    tScale    = usrVals[1] ;                                  /* temp. scale                      */
    sScale    = usrVals[2] ;                                  /* spec. scale                      */
    temp      = udfGetElmData( udfHd, UDF_ELM_TEMPERATURE ) ; /* get temperature                  */
    spec      = udfGetElmData( udfHd, UDF_ELM_SPECIES ) ;     /* get species                      */
    for ( elem = 0 ; elem < nItems ; elem++ ) { 
       outVec[elem] = diff0
                    + tScale * temp[elem]
                    + sScale * spec[elem] ;
} /* end of usrDiffusivityExample() */

The dimension of the returned diffusivity vector, outVec, is the number of elements.

The multiplier_function parameter may be used to uniformly scale the diffusivity values. The value of this parameter refers to the user-given name of a MULTIPLIER_FUNCTION command in the input file. For example, a ramped diffusivity may be specified by:
DIFFUSIVITY_MODEL( "similar to ramped diffusivity model" ) {
   type                = constant 
   diffusivity         = 1
   multiplier_function = "ramped"
   MULTIPLIER_FUNCTION( "ramped" ) {
   type                = piecewise_log_linear
   curve_fit_values    = { 1, 1000 ; 10, 1 }
   curve_fit_variable  = time_step 
In areas of turbulent flow the "molecular" diffusivity d is replaced by the total diffusivity d+dt in the diffusion flux vector. The turbulent diffusivity dt is defined by(2)

where μ t is the turbulent viscosity, given by the turbulence model in use; ρ is the density; and SCt is the turbulent Schmidt number, given by turbulent_schmidt_number.