# Hourglass Resistance

To correct this phenomenon, it is necessary to introduce anti-hourglass forces and moments. Two possible formulations are presented hereafter.

## Flanagan-Belytschko Formulation

`I`_{shell}=1^{1}

^{1}:

- $\frac{\partial {q}_{i}^{\alpha}}{\partial t}$
- Hourglass modal velocities
- ${\Gamma}_{I}^{\alpha}$
- Hourglass vectors, base

## Elastoplastic Hourglass Forces

`I`_{shell}=3

^{1}) but the forces are bounded with a maximum force depending on the current element mean yield stress. The hourglass forces are defined as:

- $t$
- Element thickness
- ${\sigma}_{y}$
- Yield stress
- $A$
- Element area

## Physical Hourglass Forces

`I`_{shell}=22, 24

^{2}that the non-constant part of the membrane strain rate does not vanish when a warped element undergoes a rigid body rotation. Thus, a modified matrix [ ${\left({B}_{I}^{m}\right)}^{H}$ ] is chosen using ${z}_{\gamma}={\gamma}_{I}{z}^{I}$ as a measure of the warping:

^{3}correction term added at rotational positions, which couples translations to curvatures as:

This will lead to membrane locking (the membrane strain will not vanish under a constant bending loading). According to the general formulation, the coupling is presented in terms of bending and not in terms of membrane, yet the normal translation components in ( ${B}_{I}^{m}$ ) do not vanish for a warped element due to the tangent vectors ${t}_{i}\left(\xi ,\eta \right)$ which differ from ${t}_{i}\left(0,0\right)$ .

## Fully Integrated Formulation

`I`_{shell}=12

The element is based on the Q4
$\gamma $
24
shell element developed in ^{4} by Batoz and Dhatt. The element has 4 nodes with 5 local
degrees-of-freedom per node. Its formulation is based on the Cartesian shell approach where
the middle surface is curved. The shell surface is fully integrated with four Gauss points.
Due to an in-plane reduced integration for shear, the element shear locking problems are
avoided. The element without hourglass deformations is based on Mindlin-Reissner plate
theory where the transversal shear deformation is taken into account in the expression of
the internal energy. Consult the reference for more details.

## Shell Membrane Damping

The shell membrane damping, `dm`, is only used for LAWS
25, 27, 19, 32 and 36. The Shell membrane damping factor is a factor on the numerical
VISCOSITY and not a physical viscosity. Its effect is shown in the formula of the
calculation of forces in a shell element:

- ${\rho}_{0}$
- Density
- $AREA$
- Area of the shell element surface
- dt
- Time step
- $c$
- Sound speed

In order to calibrate the dm value so that it represents the physical viscosity, one should obtain the same size for all shell elements (Cf. $AREA$ factor), then scale the physical viscosity value to the element size.

^{1}Flanagan D. and Belytschko T., “A Uniform Strain Hexahedron and Quadrilateral with Orthogonal Hourglass Control”, Int. Journal Num. Methods in Engineering, 17 679-706, 1981.

^{2}Belytschko T., Lin J.L. and Tsay C.S., “Explicit algorithms for the nonlinear dynamics of shells”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 42:225-251, 1984.

^{3}Belytschko T. and Leviathan I., “Physical stabilization of the 4-node shell element with one-point quadrature”, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 113:321-350, 1992.

^{4}Batoz J.L. and Dhatt G., “Modeling of Structures by finite element”, volume 3, Hermes, 1992.